Wednesday, May 28, 2008
Tuesday, May 27, 2008
These travel brochures depicted scenes of beautiful beach, landscapes and happy, beautiful women to attract people’s attention. The colours were rich and the designs modern. Solid shapes were filled with solid colour creating a collage effect similar to that of Matisse’s work.
But as WWII broke out, the travel industry all but diminished, bringing an end to these brochures. Many of the art styles of the day also ended.
Monday, May 26, 2008
The great depression left America wounded both morally and financially. As a result of this President Franklin Roosevelt implemented a series of programs and promises labelled the New Deal. Its objective was largely to alleviate pressure on the economy created by the great depression and to boost the moral of the American people especially the labourers and workers.
The Treasury Department, under the New Deal commissioned artists to create murals and sculptures for postal facilities across America. They were selected by way of competition, which led to some of the most talented artists working for the New Deal.
One of those artists was Harry Sternberg. In 1935 he was appointed technical advisor of the Graphic Art Division, Federal Art Project (FAP) were he became politically active in union and socialist causes. The following year he spent time studying the conditions of workers in steel mills and coal mines which was more than enough inspiration for many of his works.
Sterberg’s murals depicted workers in heroic posses and labouring in unison toward the completion of a public project. They were often very busy with vector lines dissecting the mural creating energy and life. This feeling was enhanced by his quick brush stokes and use of positive and negative space. The works were sometimes overcrowded but for the most part achieved harmony and balance through a contrast between light and dark colours and tones.
To me Sternberg was one of the great contibuters to the New Deal due to his studies within the steel mill and coal mining communities. He was at the forefront of social commentary portraying the culture and character of Blue collar America as one of unity and strength.
Ben Shahn immigrated to New York City with his family having to flee the Russian empire after is father was exiled to Serbia for alleged revolutionary activities. Shahn was first trained as a lithographer, which lead him to work in graphic design. His early training became evident in his later works that combined both text and print, making bold social commentaries which became hugely popular among social realists.
During WW2 also worked for the Office of War Information (OWI). This was short lived however, due to the lack of patriotism in his work only two of his posters were ever published. After this he actively expressed his distain for war and created a series of paintings such as ‘Death on the Beach’ which depicted the horrors of war. After this time he went on to work as a commercial artist, for such organizations as Time and CBS. One of his most famous works was a portrait of Martin Luther King, Jr. appeared on the cover of Time magazine.
Shahns vision and symbolism set him apart from other artists of this time period. He uses contrasting scales and colors to create tension, however he is also noted for his precision and detail that is clearly influenced by lithography and shows in his interpretations of his photography.
Joseph Binder was an Austrian-born designer who influenced most of Europe and the U.S.
In 1924 Binder founded his own studio, Vienna Graphics, and built a reputation as an advertising artist and poster designer.
In 1927 he acted as one of the founding fathers of the national Austrian designers association, Design Austria, who continue to remember him through an international design competition, the Joseph Binder Award.
His designs aim for a reductive, postmodern approach derived from Cubism. This applied to all his posters, including ones commissioned by American Railroads, American Airlines, the Red Cross and many tourism firms.
Binder’s style is very distinctive and eye-catching, hence his success in the advertising industry.
The absence of outline and heavy reliance on bright block colours suggests Cubism monopolized Binder’s influences. The shapes are simple and geometric in appearance. However, beyond block colours is the suggestion of texture, shading and dimension, particularly in posters featuring his painting skills which are mostly used as background effects and bases. The forms are abstract indeed, yet recognizable and distinguishable. In this way, Binder’s Cubist practices met his great love of painting, creating the perfect advertising material for the 1930s era.
I could find no further links on the net – sorry!
Rand had a simplistic approach and was quick to point out himself in A Designer’s Art that “ideas do not need to be esoteric to be original or exciting”. The simplicity became a common element with what he created, whether it was a page design, magazine cover, ad, or logo. Rand always thought that the design of a logo must be simple, in order to appeal aesthetically.
Rand broke away from the conventional standards of typography and layout, In the 1940s. He started incorporating a Swiss style of design into his creations. He merged American visual culture into European ‘modern art’ design, integrating Cubism, Constructivism, and the Bauhaus into his work.
Corporate identity designs are Rands most seen and known works. Being his main achievements. His talent and excellent execution was apparent in the logos he designed for many firms from a vast range of industries like IBM, Apple, UPS, ABC Television, NeXT, Enron, the Cummins Engine Company, El Producto Cigar Company, Compton Advertising and Westinghouse Electric Corporation to name a few. The main image that virtually became Paul Rand’s identity was his corporate identity design/logo for IBM. The logo with the three letters in bold font was a design concept that gave birth to corporate and public awareness at the same time.
Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton was born in Hampstead England 1904 and died in 1980.The Beaton family were actually timber merchants by trade and at an early age while Cecil was attending St Cyprian`s School his artistic talents were recognized.
Through out his childhood his nanny possessed a Kodak 3A Camera and was forever teaching him how to photograph he would take photos of his sisters and send the pictures to high society magazines recommending himself as a photographer. He then went on to study art, history and architecture at St Johns College Cambridge.
Cecil Beaton was most famous for his fashion and portrait photography of high society and Hollywood; he was a staff photographer for both Vanity Fair and Vogue magazines
He was never really known as a highly skilled or technical photographer, he instead took time and focused on the model and scene always focusing on the perfect moment to shoot.
Beaton regularly photographed the royal family and there weddings and in 1972 was knighted.
During the Second World War he was posted and given the task of recording images from the home front during this time he took one of the most famous photos of 3-year-old Eileen Dunne.
After the war Beaton took to Broadway designing sets costumes and lighting his most well known work was achieved on sets for musicals such as “My Fair Lady” and “Gigi” both of which he won academy awards for.
Beaton was so in tune with the changes in fashion his career maintained its momentum for a span of five decades.
Ben Shahn was born in Kaunas, Lithuania in 1898. His family then moved to America in 1904 and Shahn became a lithographer's apprentice after he finished schooling. He
Ben remained to diplay pictorial realiti
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